Forensic Dentistry
28-09-2010
1.1 IntroductionIdentification of an individual can be confirmed by several different methods. These include visual identification, personal effects, tattoos, scars, anatomical structures, medical devices, and implants, as well as fingerprint, DNA, and dental comparisons. Molina subdivides the methods of identification as visual, circumstantial, external characteristics, internal characteristics, radiographs, and anthropology, and notes that DNA, fingerprint, and dental comparisons are considered the scientific methods of identification.
Forensic dentistry
21-09-2010
1.1 “Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology to the legal process.” Forensic anthropologists provide services to a large community, which includes a variety of law enforcement agencies, from local to federal or even international jurisdictions, medical examiners, coroners, and others charged with the responsibility for the investigation of death. In these endeavors forensic anthropologists cooperate with odontologists, pathologists, radiologists, and other forensic specialists who deal routinely with human remains.
Forensic Dentistry
21-09-2010
 part 1   1.7 DNA DatabasesOver the past two decades, forensic odontologists have witnessed a series of computer software programs that provide the ability to store highly detailed antemortem and postmortem records. The Computer-Assisted Postmortem Identification System (CAPMI) and Wind-ID are memorable examples, as is the 2004 version of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) that accommodates more than just dental fields for missing and unidentified remains.The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) contracts with PlassData in Denmark to administer DVI System International, which is a similar database application that stores dental and other identification data, including DNA profiles, for use in disaster victim identification responses worldwide.
Forensic dentistry
21-09-2010
1.1 IntroductionThere are few scientific approaches to human identification that are more effective than a well-trained forensic dentist armed with a set of high-quality dental records and radiographs. Fingerprinting is probably the only other technique used with greater frequency, but as we know, the soft tissue of the extremities does not resist the ravages of time and environment like the enamel and dentin of human teeth. So, in terms of rapidity, degree of certainty, cost-fectiveness, and applicability to a wide range of intact, decomposing, or skeletonized remains, forensic odontology has been the identification method of choice.
Forensic dentistry
21-09-2010
  1.1 IntroductionFingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific vidence in courts of law throughout the world. Fingerprints, along with forensic dental and DNA analysis, are also paramount in the identification of unknown deceased individuals and human remains.
Forensic dentistry
21-09-2010
1.1 BackgroundEstablishing the identity of a person may seem like an easy task; the person, or their friends or family, can simply be asked their name. In medicolegal cases, however, there are often reasons why people are either unable to give accurate answers or purposefully give inaccurate ones. In cases of death, a body may also be too disfigured due to trauma to allow for easy identification. This is common in cases of high-velocity crashes (e.g., cars, airplanes), fires, explosions, or decomposed/skeletonized remains.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
The single most important quality control or assurance (QC/QA) mechanism in the ME's office is the appointment of qualified and certified forensic pathologists, particularly in the position of chief medical examiner. In modern medical practice, board certification of physicians is expected and usually required for the full exercise of the practice privileges in a medical specialty. Similarly, such certification is necessary in the field of forensic pathology to indicate that a practitioner has met the minimum standards of training and knowledge in the field.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
The majority of ME's offices are funded and chartered by government entities, such as counties, cities, or states. These organizations are established by statute, and function as agencies of that government. Typically, a chief medical examiner is appointed by the local city, county, or state executive, and he or she then appoints deputy medical examiners and other personnel as needed in order to meet the mission and statutory mandate of the office. The personnel of the office are employees of the jurisdiction, and the office is funded by the county, city, or state.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
Death CertificationA majorcommon denominator in any modern death investigation system is thedocumentation of death and the determination of its cause and manner, alsoreferred to as death certification. In early times, records of birth and deathwere kept inconsistently, if at all, but in 1538, clergy in England were required to keep aledger of births, deaths, and marriages in their parishes. This customof registration persisted for many years, but gradually became a function of governmentsinstead of the church.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
As will be seen subsequently, the systems of death investigation in the United States are widely varied. However, they generally share a number of mission components in common. To paraphrase DiMaio and DiMaio, the various components of a death investigation system are as follows: 1. Determine the cause of death, and how the death came about 2. Identify the decedent 3. Determine the time of death and injury 4. Collect evidence from the body that may be useful in the police investigation 5. Document injuries that are present, or their absence 6.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
Tough the cause of death was undoubtedly investigated in ancient times, it was likely an ancillary duty of tribal elders, magistrates, priests, or other authorities. The frst instance of an official office charged with the investigation of death, as we know it today, was probably the English coroner.Tough officials with this responsibility are reported as far back as 871 A.D., in the time of Alfred the Great, the beginning of the coroner system in England is generally taken to have been in 1194, with the publication of the Articles of Eyre, the Eyre being a system of roving "circuit" justices in England in the twelfth century.
Forensic Dentistry
17-09-2010
The most primitive societies likely had a well-developed sense of the causative relationship of trauma, old age, and illness to death, and early "investigations" occurred even in tribal societies to determine why a member of the family group had died, though they were more likely to invoke superstition or magical thinking instead of the "rational" methods employed by modern societies. Early Mesopotamian civilizations, and those of ancient Egypt, Greece, and India, had well-developed legal codes (the earliest being the Code of Hammurabi, 2200 B.
Forensic Dentistry
15-09-2010
1.1 IntroductionWhen the subject of forensic dentistry arises, the first reaction of many people tends to be toward one of two extremes: either very cool or decidedly gross. The public assumption seems to be that forensic dentistry deals with "the dead." This view is not totally inaccurate. Although the majority of dental identification cases do involve the dead, there is much more involved, including cases dealing with the living, in this interesting field of art and science. With training, ongoing continuing education, and experience, the forensic odontologist will find the application of this knowledge to be personally rewarding.
Forensic Dentistry
15-09-2010
1.1   The Garden of EdenVale wrote in 2005, “It is always tempting to suggest that the history of bitemark evidence [and hence forensic dentistry] began with the eating of forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.” Temptation now, as then, is genuine. However, forensic odontologists and court reporters were very rare at that time; there is no dependable record of the event, analysis, comparisons, or testimony. Moreover, there were a limited number of suspects in this closed-population case and the suspects reportedly confessed.
15-09-2010
1.1   Introduction Forensic science is simply defined as the application of science to the law or legal matters. In today’s CSI and Forensic Files world, this area of science is much more widely known to the general public. However, it is also misunderstood due to Hollywood’s resolve to complete every case within the context of a one-hour, commercials included, pseudo-real-life crime drama.  When the actual real-life judicial system needs science to resolve a question, the person who is called upon to bring science into the courtroom is often a forensic scientist.
05-04-2010
Principles of regulationWhile the primary focus of thestatutory regulatory process is to protect the public  there is  no  doubt that  it  does have  other  advantages. First,  it enhances the status ofthe profession and second,  it providessome assur-ance  of  the standards  of  the professionals  in  the working environment. This is achieved through either published ethical guidanceor the inspection of undergraduate courses as provided by dental schools orfaculties,  ensur-ing the higheststandards of educational provisions are met.
30-03-2010
Caries thresholdsSimple oral health surveys usually apply criteria from WHO guidelines, recording the signs of disease only at an advanced stage, on a dichotomous principle (yes or no);that is, the surface can be recorded only as either sound or carious (caries is recorded as present when a lesion in a pit or fissure, or on a smooth tooth surface, has a detectably softened floor, undermined enamel, or a softened wall. A tooth with a provisional restoration should also be included in this category.
30-03-2010
Epidemiology of Dental CariesIntroductionAn important function of the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Unit is  the collection and analysis of global epidemiologic data on oral diseases, recorded in national, computer-aided studies. Goals for the level of oral health status are set and revised at certain intervals. Because epidemiologic studies measure dental caries in groups or populations, some care must be taken to ensure that the same diagnostic criteria are applied to each individual examined.
30-03-2010
ConclusionsDevelopmentA carious lesion should be regarded as damage resulting from the infectious disease dental caries. The coronal lesion starts as clinically undetectable demineralization of enamel, visible only at the microscopic level, and proceeds gradually to visible, noncavitated demineralization of first the enamel surface and then the dentin, and finally to cavitation of the dentin. Primary carious lesions are most frequently located supragingivally on the crowns and particularly on the occlusal surfaces of the molars and the approximal surfaces of the posterior teeth.
30-03-2010
Diagnosis of secondary cariesDefinition and prevalenceSecondary caries has been reported to be eight times more common than primary lesions in adults, particularly in those older than 50 years (Goldberg et al, 1981). However, prevalence may vary markedly in different countries, depending on the total caries prevalence in the population and the level of development of the dental care system. In developing countries with low caries prevalence in the adult population and poor dental care resources, secondary caries may be almost negligible.

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