Evidence from epidemiologic studies

Evidence from epidemiologic studies
Numerous worldwide epidemiologic studies during the 20th century have shown that
caries prevalence is low in developing countries or populations living on a local,
carbohydrate-rich diet, based on starch instead of sucrose. Figure 51 shows sugar
consumption in 1977 in a number of countries worldwide. Consumption is extremely
low in China, and caries prevalence among 12 year olds is very low. On the other
hand, sugar consumption in Japan is only about half that of other industrialized
countries, but caries prevalence is moderate to high.
In contrast, for the last 30 to 40 years, sugar consumption in Sweden has remained
persistently high, at about 120 g/per day (Fig 52). At the same time, caries prevalence
has decreased from very high to low. Since the early 1950s, it has been “common
knowledge” in Sweden that caries is “caused” by frequent intake of sweets. Despite
this, over the last 30 years, indirect sugar consumption in the form of sticky sweets,
cakes, and so on has increased from about 30% to more than 60% of total sugar
consumption (see Fig 52). The dramatic reduction in caries prevalence is therefore
attributable not to a reduction in dietary sugar but to a marked improvement in oral
hygiene habits, an associated widespread, regular use of fluoride toothpaste, and
needs-related professional preventive measures.
However, comparison of international data discloses an association between sugar
consumption and caries development. Using information on sugar supplies in various
countries, obtained from food balance sheet data prepared by the FAO, and data on
caries prevalence from the World Health Organization for 6 year olds in 23 nations
and 12 year olds in 47 nations, Sreebny (1982) demonstrated a significant positive
correlation between the quantity of sugar available per capita in a country and caries
prevalence in 12 year olds, but not in 6 year olds. In both age groups, the availability
of less than 50 g sugar per person per day in a country was always associated with
decayed, missing, or filled teeth scores of less than 3. However, this type of
epidemiologic comparison is flawed: Sugar availability cannot directly be
extrapolated to consumption specifically by 6 or 12 year olds. Both caries prevalence
and sugar consumption vary among different age groups within each country.
In wartime, the availability of sugar is usually restricted. In Japan, annual sugar
consumption fell from 15 kg per person prior to World War II to 0.2 kg in 1946.
Many attempts have been made to relate the level of sugar consumption before,
during, and after World War II to caries prevalence in the children: In Norway,
Finland, and Denmark there was a clear relationship between sugar consumption and
caries development in permanent first molars in children.
One of the most thorough literature surveys was made by Sognnaes (1948), who
reviewed 27 wartime studies from 11 European countries, involving 750,000 children.
Reductions in caries prevalence and severity were observed in all studies. Because of
the high prevalence of caries in Europeans, reductions in severity were usually greater
than reductions in prevalence. Sognnaes observed that, in many of the studies, there
appeared to be a delay of about 3 years between the reduction (or increase) in sugar
consumption and a reduction (or increase) in caries severity.
Views: 1556 | Comments: 4 Send reply
she looks way better than the old sugar to me she altcaluy has a pretty face her and sunshine are the best to me thatnks admin and please bring more sunshine

I’m not surprised that astmha rates are higher here. Most people’s allergies act up as soon as they move to Medicine Hat, even if they’ve never had allergies in their lives. It may be due to the usually dry conditions, dust, and lots of grasses. (I know first hand since I’m a pharmacist too). Asthma and allergies are really closely related, and lots of the same meds are used to treat both of them. (I also know first hand from needing to use them!)As far as the prostate cancer rates, I don’t know where Medicine Hat stands, but we do have an older population, so I wouldn’t be surprised to see a higher incidence here.Anyway, I agree with Jace, I’d take Medicine Hat over Kenya etc we’re pretty fortunate here!

What about the rumors of the checmial testing they used to do out in Suffield? I wonder if that could be considered a conspiracy theory. I’ve also heard about higher rates of ALS in the southern alberta region, but in my brief looking, could not confirm that.

not to overtly juapxtose the conversation or nothing, but i’d still choose Medicine Hat, Southern Alberta to ANYWHERE in Zambia, most parts of Kenya etc. hands down. (and i do love Kenya, where the Lions are, and the Zebra) http://moucdywfof.com [url=http://jecswygz.com]jecswygz[/url] [link=http://kgblyke.com]kgblyke[/link]

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Articles for theme “caries”:
Role of fermentable carbohydrates (sugar and starch)A diet rich in fermentable carbohydrates (frequent sugar intake) is indisputably a verypowerful external RF and PRF for dental caries in populations with poor oral hygienehabits and an associated lack of regular topical fluoride exposure from toothpaste.However, in populations with good oral hygiene and daily use of fluoride toothpaste,sugar is a very weak RF and PRF, because clean teeth never decay, and fluoride is aunique preventive factor. The biochemical role of fermentable carbohydrates such assucrose in the development of an enamel caries lesion on a plaque-covered toothsurface is illustrated in Fig 2 (see chapter 1).
External Modifying Factors Involved in Dental CariesIntroductionAwareness of the multifactorial nature of dental caries is of fundamental importance.Figure 48 illustrates the interdependence of most of the determinate variablesassociated with dental caries. Besides etiologic, preventive, and control factors, manyother factors may modify the prevalence, onset, and progression of dental caries. Suchfactors may be divided into external (environmental) and internal (endogenous)factors (to be discussed in chapter 3).
Prediction and prevention of cariesThe younger the population and the lower the caries prevalence in the population, thehigher the percentage of caries-free subjects. In these populations, it is necessary tofocus on “high-risk strategy” and primary prevention, rather than secondaryprevention.For practicing primary prevention according to the high-risk strategy, the etiologicfactors used for caries prediction must be as sensitive as possible, that is, optimizingthe percentage of true high-risk individuals for cost effectiveness.
Rationale for combining salivary MS tests and PFRI for prediction of caries risk Like the inflammation induced in gingival soft tissues adjacent to dental plaque, carious lesions that develop on the individual enamel surface beneath bacterial plaque should be regarded as the net result of an extraordinarily complex interplay between harmless and harmful bacteria, antagonistic and synergistic bacterial species, their metabolic products, and their interaction with the many other external (fermentable carbohydrates etc) and internal (saliva and other host factors) modifying factors,which are discussed in more detail in chapters 2 and 3.
Selection of caries-risk patientsInability of a sole salivary MS test to predict caries riskAs already mentioned in this chapter, numerous cross-sectional as well as longitudinalstudies have shown significant correlations between salivary MS levels and cariesprevalence and caries incidence (for review, see Bratthall, 1991; Bratthall andEricsson, 1994; Beighton et al, 1989). At the surface level, even more significantcorrelations between MS colonization and caries incidence have been found(Axelsson et al, 1987b; Kristoffersson et al, 1985).